By Grace Wagner, Reading Room Access Services Supervisor
This June, we are celebrating the accomplishments of several SCRC staff members. First, congratulations to Brett Barrie, Assistant Catalog Librarian, Acquisitions and Cataloging and Nicole Westerdahl, Reference and Access Services Librarian, who were promoted from Assistant Librarian to Senior Assistant Librarian status. And a hearty thank you to Courtney Asztalos, Plastics and Historical Artifacts Curator, who served as the chair of the promotion committee this year.
Further congratulations to the seven recipients of Dean David Seaman’s 2020 Commendation Awards, including two members of SCRC’s staff:
Nicole Westerdahl, Reference and Access Services Librarian for Special Collections Research Center, on the support of research, digitization, and copyright for Forever Orange.
Courtney Asztalos, Plastics and Historical Artifacts Curator for Special Collections Research Center, for making the plastics collection much more prominent on campus and an important teaching tool in the chemistry and Visual Performing Arts programs.
Congratulations to all!
Call for Submissions
A reminder that the Syracuse University Archives is seeking to record and preserve the personal responses of Syracuse University students, faculty, and staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. Take a look at our website page on this project for more information.
Looking Back at June Events
6 June 2020. Frederick Douglass letters from SCRC’s collections are referenced in an article from the Colorado Springs Gazette that considers the future of America and the Black Lives Matter movement from an archival lens.
10 June 2020. A Geneva company plans to renovate the former Syroco facility in Van Buren and turn the space into a plastics recycling plant. Brief history of Syroco provided through SCRC. Our blog post on Syroco can be found here.
15 June 2020. Breuer architecture drawings from SU Libraries referenced in article on dramatic beauty of Brutalist architecture.
The image featured in the header of this post is from our Syracuse University Commencement Reference Collection (Syracuse University Commencement Reference Collection, Special Collections Research Center, University Archives, Syracuse University Libraries), part of the Special Collections Research Center’s University Archives collections.
By Sebastian Modrow, Curator of Rare Books and Manuscripts
From 2016 to 2017, Syracuse University’s Special Collections Research Center engaged in a massive preservation project. The task was to rehouse and increase the intellectual control over approximately 17,000 plates used as textbook illustrations by the American Book Company, one of the leading American schoolbook publishers of the 19th and early 20th centuries. This illustration material comprises drawings, paintings, photographs, and prints that are mostly glued down to large pieces of acid-bearing illustration board, with handwritten annotations, captions, and corrections. The 931 original packages containing the oversize plates were in storage for over three decades. In 2016, SCRC decided that something had to be done no matter how daunting the task.
The American Book Company and its Illustration Collection
The American Book Company proper came into being in 1890 after a merger of four publishing companies: Van Antwerp, Bragg and Co., A.S. Barnes and Co., D. Appleton and Co., and Iveson, Blakeman and Co. The major focus of the company was pedagogical textbooks on everything from accounting, agriculture, and art to civics, foreign languages, history, music, science, literature, mathematics, penmanship, and various levels of reading primers. Its most successful product was the McGuffey Readers, a series of school primers that sold 120 million copies between 1836 (under Van Antwerp, Bragg and Co.) and 1960 (under the American Book Company). One result of the company’s long success story was an archive of book illustration plates. While some plates contain line art or “stock” photographs, many contain original artwork, the artist list of which reads like a Who’s Who of early American illustration history, featuring names such as Winslow Homer, Norman Rockwell, Frederick Remington, Thomas Moran, just to name a few of the most illustrious ones.
As impressive as the number and quality of the original illustrations in Syracuse University’s American Book Company Records are, they still represent only a fraction of the total artistic output of the publisher and its various predecessors: A warehouse fire in ABC’s Broadway location around the year 1900 destroyed most of the 19th century illustrations and engravings. Other parts of the ABC illustration collection were donated in 1949 and 1950 to the New York Public Library and became part of its Picture Collection.
After a series of mergers, the American Book Company K-12 assets were sold to D.C. Heath and Company in 1981, which marked the end of the American Book Company imprint.
Moving to Syracuse
In 1964, as part of a larger acquisitions campaign, Syracuse University Library’s Manuscript Administrator H.L. Applegate approached the American Book Company about a potential transfer of its records to Syracuse University. An agreement was reached and the greater part of the material from Cincinnati and New York City was shipped to Syracuse University’s Special Collections in 1967-68.
Preservation Issues and Measures
Despite Applegate’s more than optimistic promise to ABC’s Senior Vice President “to make the processing and arranging of the American Book Company archives a majorsummer project” [emphasis added], the processing of a collection of this scale and material diversity proved to be a far greater challenge than anticipated. Excluding the drawings, the contents of the collection, consisting of general correspondence, calendars, business records, books, miscellanea, illustrations, and study charts, were processed by 1978. The still unprocessed artwork amounted to 931 packages of plates, all still in their original acidic wrapping paper in the Special Collections backlog. But how to tackle almost a thousand packages?
With a collection of this size, the only viable option appeared to be to rehouse and interleave the boards. The use of archival quality oversize boxes and of acid-free interleaving paper and their transfer to Syracuse University Libraries’ state of the art storage facility will now at least slow down the degradation of the original artwork.
The job occupied two SCRC staff members almost full time for over a year. By the project’s end, the original artwork series of the American Book Company Records spread out over 1,200 oversize boxes, bringing the total collection size up to 3,313 linear feet of shelf space!!
But what about access?
One issue that rehousing alone would not alleviate is that of access to the material. In order to provide access efficiently, you need a certain level of intellectual control over a collection. The rehousing project offered the unique opportunity to check the actual content of the packages against the old high-level inventory list in order to reestablish the plate number sequence where it was disturbed – by use of enormous sorting shelves – and to create a new more accurate inventory spreadsheet listing the individual plate numbers contained in each oversize box and the respective topic or genre of the material (e.g. United States History, Science, Reader, Primer, etc.). These updates would offer both researchers and staff at least some guidance when browsing the material in the finding aid.
Two challenges remained, however: First, how could a researcher preselect the relevant plates and avoid ordering large quantities of oversized boxes from an offsite facility? A lack of detailed description not only places a strain on a researcher’s time but also increases the wear and tear on the collection overall, as it forces each researcher to physically handle large quantities of material in order to find the few items relevant for a research project.
Second, when the rehousing team began unwrapping the original artwork, they found the majority of the plates in such a fragile state that access restrictions would seem to be the only way to prevent this collection from being ‘used to pieces.’ The only feasible solution in the midst of a rehousing project of this magnitude was the addition of ‘quick and dirty’ digitization to the workflow. In order to do this, the team set up an impromptu photo lab in the warehouse on one of the processing tables. Each plate, after being freed from the old acidic wrapping paper, and before it was interleaved and put on the sorting shelf, could be photographed with minimal investment of time and without any extra wear and tear to the material.
The result of this thorough rehousing and quick and dirty digitization project is a complete photo-documentation of the original ABC artwork at Syracuse University’s Special Collections Research Center. While the lighting in the warehouse and the process of the rehousing project photography did not allow for the creation of publication quality images, the results of this ‘quick’ makeshift solution were actually not that ‘dirty’ after all. The images were produced at a resolution high enough to answer most of the questions a scholar or course instructor might have, without needing to handle the fragile originals. This simple and not-at-all invasive or time-consuming modification of the rehousing workflow created a potential for virtual research and instruction that the fragile originals would never survive.
The last, but essential and more time-consuming, piece in this discovery-and-access puzzle is, of course, the creation of descriptive metadata. Without this, the newly created terabytes of artwork photographs would remain as inaccessible as the originals. Since 2018, the Special Collections Research Center has been offering descriptive metadata internships aimed primarily at Library Science, Museum Studies, or Art History graduate students, helping them develop a skillset that is in high demand in their respective fields today. During the internship, students populate various metadata fields in SCRC’s home-grown METS Manager interface, including a standardized content description narrative and thereby – one image at a time – create the access points needed to turn this photographic documentation into a virtual research and teaching resource. Previous internships, as well as the research of SCRC’s former Chief Curator Andrew Saluti, have already brought to light some amazing early artwork of later-to-be-famous American artists Norman Rockwell, Thomas Moran and others.
So far, 2,674 of the approximately 17,000 images have been described, an ongoing process that is still years away from being completed. What started out as a daunting rehousing project will, when completed, provide the academic community and the interested public with an incredible virtual research and teaching collection related to America’s history of illustration and public education. Fingers crossed!
The American Book Company Records(American Book Company Records, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries) are part of the Special Collections Research Center’s manuscript collections.
By David Stokoe, Associate Librarian, Conservator of Rare Books and Paper
In 2008, SCRC acquired a manuscript cookbook written in French and containing no named author or title. The contents were immediately identifiable as a mixture of diary entries and recipes probably written in the early 1880’s. The book came to be known as the “French Chef’s Diary.”
The book is part of the Kay Shaw Nelson Papers. This collection covers a variety of current and historical topics relating to food and travel. Per the collection’s finding aid:
“Born in Hanover, New Hampshire, Ms. Nelson graduated from Syracuse University in 1948 with a degree in Russian studies and journalism. She worked as a reporter for several New Hampshire newspapers before taking a job as an intelligence officer for the CIA. Beginning in 1951, she and her husband Wayne, also a CIA intelligence officer, spent many years abroad in the Middle East, the Far East, Europe, Africa, North and South America, and the Caribbean. In 1997, she wrote an introduction entitled “How to go from spies to pies: Operation Gastronomy” for the best-selling cookbook, Spies, Black Ties, & Mango Pies: Stories and Recipes from CIA Families All Over the World. The author of numerous cookbooks and hundreds of articles in national publications, such as the Washington Post, Gourmet, Woman’s Day, and Family Circle, she was also a newspaper columnist and culinary historian.”
Kay Shaw Nelson Papers, Biographical History
There were multiple condition issues readily apparent on the first viewing of the cookbook, but fortunately, the text was written using water stable ink with only a few additional drawings using color pigments that can be extremely unstable in water or other aqueous based treatment solutions.
The cookbook was written on very acidic paper with no remaining binding structure other than some weak sewing securing the pages to two linen tapes across the spine. Many of the page corners and edges were broken off, and the paper was so fragile it was almost impossible to handle or read without causing more damage. The book was brought straight to the conservation lab for appraisal and possible treatment!
In consultation with curators, it was decided to undertake a full conservation treatment of the book to ensure its long-term preservation and access.
The plan was to disassemble, dry clean, test inks and pigments, wash, deacidify, and repair the paper before rebinding the book in a sympathetic and protective style.
Testing the current condition and chemical makeup were the first steps on the road to recovery for this damaged book. pH tests were conducted to assess paper acidity levels, inks and pigments were tested for water fastness, and all fragments numbered lightly in pencil prior to disassembly. Pigment testing revealed some water-solubility issues with the colored drawings, so those pages were de-acidified using an alcohol-based spray instead of a water-based treatment. Water immersion is more effective than alcohol-based spray at reducing paper acidity, so it is the preferred method of de-acidification. All text inks were stable in water, so they could be immersed without fear of fading or ink density loss.
Where possible, the paper was dry cleaned using soft brushes and vinyl erasers, fragile areas were not cleaned to avoid further damage. Once disassembled, the loose pages were interleaved between sheets of open weave spun polyester to support and protect them during the aqueous treatments of washing first in filtered water and then a deacidification solution to reduce the acid levels and deposit an alkaline buffer for future protection. These processes also reduce surface dirt and staining, as well as rejuvenating the paper. The pages were dried between blotting paper sheets and reassessed for damage and weakness.
Although washed and de-acidified, the paper was still very fragile with many detached edges and corners. Repairs using lightweight Japanese tissue (JT) and wheat starch paste work very well but can cause stress and weakness around repaired areas. I decided to completely line all pages with Tenjugo Thin (3gsm), a very thin JT to give uniform support, and use a thicker JT for infilling missing edges, all done using a reversible wheat starch paste while each dampened page sits on a flexible plastic sheet over a light box to illuminate the work. The repaired pages were dried flat between release sheets and carefully trimmed, folded and collated.
JTs are ideal for this type of work for many reasons, chemically inert with long cellulose fibers, available in many colors and thicknesses, and flexible and durable. Wheat starch paste is reversible in water, chemically stable and has excellent adhesion properties when used with paper, cloth, parchment, vellum and leather.
Once reassembled, endpapers were constructed and page gatherings (or signatures) were guarded with protective JT along the spine edge to separate the original paper from spine liner and adhesive, just in case the book is ever disbound again! JT guards were also used inside the signatures to prevent sewing thread from damaging interior folds. Once the sewing was completed, all JT guards were carefully trimmed down to a minimum. Loose ephemeral paper documents were guarded onto JT stubs and sewn onto the front of the text block.
The repaired and resewn text block was “case bound” (a very simple construction easily removed) in archival buckram book cloth with acid free boards and custom boxed using the libraries’ bespoke box making equipment.
Full book conservation treatments are time consuming and intensive, so each book is assessed by various criteria including historic importance, collection relevance, life expectancy, chemical stability, uniqueness, academic value and many other factors.
The French Chef’s Diary was selected for many of these reasons, but its fragility was the deciding factor from a conservator’s viewpoint. As physical handling is the primary cause of deterioration, the book could not be consulted without immediately risking further damage to the brittle acidic paper.
The ethics of archive and library conservation dictate several criteria including reversibility of processes and minimally invasive repairs. Unlike art treatments, library conservation work needs to allow public access while ensuring the item can withstand careful physical handling.
The French Chef’s diary featured in this post is part of SCRC’s Kay Shaw Nelson Papers(Kay Shaw Nelson Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries), part of the Special Collections Research Center’s manuscript collections.
By Grace Wagner, Reading Room Access Services Supervisor
“Dr. Mary Walker may be eccentric, but she is no fool. On election day, she offered her vote in Oswego; and it was refused on account of her sex. A bystander remarked that, if Mary was allowed to vote, ‘they might as well dress up all their women-folks in men’s clothes, and bring them down and vote them.’ To which Mary indignantly replied: ‘I don’t wear men’s clothes, I wear my own clothes.’ Exit the masculine voter.”
Vineland Independent, 1880
Dr. Mary Edwards Walker achieved national recognition in the 19th century for her service as a surgeon in the army during the Civil War. She was awarded the Medal of Honor for her service in 1865, the only woman to receive this honor to this day (the award was revoked in 1917 and restored in 1977). Despite her accomplishments in this arena, in later years she was known largely as an “eccentric” to the majority of the United States population, an impression that followed her until her death in February 1919 at the age of 86. This impression of eccentricity, as the above account indicates and confirms, was awarded to Walker not solely (or even primarily) because of her work as an army surgeon, but largely due to the “men’s clothes” she exclusively attired herself in at this point in time. Although Walker did not outfit herself in waistcoats and trousers until later in her life, dress reform was a battle that she had been waging from the early days of her life.
Walker did not take the subject of dress reform lightly and she championed practical dress from an early date. Raised by freethinker and abolitionist parents, she and her four older sisters grew up working on her family’s farm and eschewed corsets and other restrictive garments of the day. She was an early adopter of the “bloomer” trend (consisting of a shorter full skirt worn over loose trousers) of the 1850s and she worked with Lydia Sayer Hasbrouck to write for The Sibyl: A Review of the Tastes, Errors, and Fashions of Society, a reformist periodical that focused on dress reform among other issues of the day. Walker wore pants when she married her husband, Albert Miller, in 1855, the same year she graduated from Syracuse Medical College, and she was elected to be president of the National Dress Reform Association in 1866. Modifying the bloomer trend, she designed and created her own medical uniform, consisting of a mid-length skirt over a pair of trousers and a buttoned coat that she wore during her years of service during the Civil War. When she was captured and imprisoned by Confederate soldiers in 1864 for four months, she refused to change into the “women’s clothes” that were provided to her and remained in her own garments. She proudly wore the Medal of Honor that was awarded to her pinned to her chest every day until her death.
Walker operated outside of many of the rules and standards set by the 19th century, but she also seemed to reject some of the standard views of other reform groups. Her approach to women’s rights, in particular, set her at odds with many of the leading suffragists of the day. For one, Walker didn’t believe that an additional amendment needed to be ratified to grant women the right to vote. In her view, the preamble to the Constitution that invoked “We the people” included women in its scope already. She would show up to the voting booth to exercise her right and was repeatedly rejected for this assumption. For another, Walker had divorced her husband after four years of marriage due to his infidelity, a choice that set her at odds with some suffragists. Finally, she was one of a very few women (Hasbrouck was another) who continued to dress in trousers after the novelty of the bloomer trend of the 1850s had ended.
Dress reform was not a frivolous pursuit to Mary Edwards Walker. She consistently positioned this cause at the center of her reform efforts. In her first book, Hit, published in 1871, Walker devotes her second — and longest — dedication (the first dedication reads in full “To My Parents”) to her fellow dress reformers:
“TO THE PRACTICAL DRESS REFORMERS,
The truest friends of humanity, who have done more for the universal elevation of woman in the past dozen years, than all others combined. You, who have lived the precepts and principles that others have only talked—who have been so consistent in your ideas of the equality of the sexes, by dressing in a manner to fit you for the duties of a noble and useful life. You, who have written and spoken, and been living martyrs to the all-important principles involved in a thoroughly hygienic dress, and thus given to the world and indisputable proof of your unflinching integrity. To You, in a word, who are the greatest philanthropists of the age, this second Dedication is made.”
Hit, Mary Edwards Walker, 1871
Repeatedly, Walker made her arguments for dress reform on the basis of hygiene, health, and greater mobility. She did not see how equality between the sexes could be achieved if women were not able to easily move and thus perform the same, or similar, work as men.
Bystanders, cartoonists, and reporters leveled a steady stream of abuse, jokes, and complaints at Walker for decades for dressing as she did, many of which are recorded in newspaper articles and editorials. By her own account, Walker was regularly harassed on the street and arrested more than a dozen times for the way she dressed. Many individuals thought — and many newspapers of the time perpetuated the narrative — that Walker had been granted special dispensation from the government to dress in trousers, despite the fact that it was not illegal for women to do so and no such dispensation actually existed.
One of the most interesting of this group of letters, sent to Walker in 1870, is covered in delicate script and a beautiful illustration of a pink rose flanked by morning glories and purple violets (symbolizing modesty and faithfulness). The letter, written by Louise Wüste, a self-described “German lady” and “Artist,” reads, in part:
“Females have Rights in the world like man in some Respects, but not in All...Most ladies have not spirit enough to learn anything, as Doctor[,] Teacher, Bookkeeper, Watchmaker[,] Bookbinder, Clerk in the Post Office[,] Painter, or even Merchanaiging [Merchandizing]; all this places Ladies could fill very well, but she has no business to meddle with politics, to go to Election, to go for the battle field, to smoke, or to dress in man’s clothes — she must not be seen much on the Street! She is and must be a Lady!”
Louise Wüste, excerpted from a 16 May 1870 letter
Although Wüste asserts that women have the right to work as doctors or painters, she also addresses her letter to “Miss Walker,” effectively discounting Walker’s medical degree and work as a surgeon. Wüste makes it clear that she does not approve of Walker’s presumption to “meddle with politics” and least of all “dress in man’s clothes,” as these behaviors contradict with one’s ability to act as a lady. Read in this light, the delicate flowers on the front of the letter seem to be less a decorative touch from an admirer and more a pointed attack on someone who did not fit the mold of womanhood as the correspondent saw it.
In reading Walker’s letters and documents, however, it is clear that Walker’s preference for trousers did not preclude her enjoyment of fashion or fashionable garments. In the photographs where she is dressed in bloomers or suits, she is elegantly put together and appears to have had a taste for beautiful and rich garments.
A February 1867 letter affirms this fact, sent to Walker by an Englishwoman, Anne Cooper, just a few years before Louise Wüste’s letter. The years 1866 and 1867 encompassed a transitory time for Mary Edwards Walker. She was still wearing bloomers and the modified uniform of her Civil War years, but she was beginning to move towards the dandified suits she adopted in later years — trousers, waistcoat, and top hat included. She was also riding the height of her Civil War fame. Like others who received a burst of celebrity from the Civil War, she capitalized on this, embarking on a speaking tour in England during this time.
Like Wüste’s letter, Cooper’s letter is also adorned with traditionally female decoration. Unlike the neat, elegant lines of the flowers drawn by Walker’s critic, however, the rich, fraying squares of cobalt blue, royal purple, and gunmetal gray are attached to the back of the document with large, uneven stitches:
“I sent you some patterns of blue to Mrs. Cox’s Hotel having forgotten your address having had no responce [sic] [.] Suppose discord predominates. I here enclose a choice of what I think – durable & elegant colours hoping to see you on Thursday.”
Anne Cooper, excerpted from a letter dated February 1867
These “durable & elegant” choices are offered alongside details of a trip to the Crystal Palace and hints of past and future social engagements. They appear to be the words of a friend.
The pieces of fabric attached to this letter may be the only samples held in the Mary Edwards Walker Papers at SCRC, and while we may never find out if the garments in question were ever made for Walker, or what colors she chose if they were, these small samplings help us to better understand Walker, her beliefs, and the way she chose to present herself to society. Walker was a complicated and a complicating figure and her choices moved her outside of the standards set by society and other reformers. She refashioned a new position in society for herself, one where she could serve as a surgeon and support causes that she loved and where she could dress how it pleased her to dress, deferring only to her own selection, rather than one imposed upon her.
TheMary Edwards Walker Papers (Mary Edwards Walker Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries) are part of the Special Collections Research Center’s manuscript collections.
Miklós Rózsa (1907-1995), whose papers are held at SCRC, was a Hungarian-American composer known for his dramatic film scores. His career in Hollywood gained him tremendous fame: Rózsa received 17 Oscar nominations and won the award three times for his music for the films Spellbound (1945), A Double Life (1947) and Ben-Hur (1959). Rózsa was a brilliant, multi-Oscar-winning composer, but the only musical motif he wrote that became easily recognizable to the general public was not part of an award-winning composition. In fact, the motif is often not associated with Rózsa at all, since the more popular version is credited to another composer.
The famous four-note motif was originally composed by Rózsa for the 1946 American film noir, The Killers. In 1951, the same motif appeared in the “Main Title” theme music for the radio and television drama, Dragnet, composed by Walter Schumann. The music became the subject of a copyright lawsuit when Abeles & Bernstein, lawyers representing Robbins Music Corporation, the publishers of Rózsa’s score for The Killers, sent a cease and desist letter to Schumann’s publisher, Capitol Records Inc., on November 16th, 1953. When Schumann challenged this letter, Abeles & Bernstein informed Miklós Rózsa they would be filing for a copyright infringement on his behalf on January 4th, 1954 for Dragnet‘s“Main Title.”
During music plagiarism lawsuits, lawyers try to establish that the second composer had an opportunity to hear the piece. In this case, Rózsa’s lawyers argued that Walter Schumann was on the sound stage during the recording of The Killers in 1946. A check procured by Universal Pictures placed Walter Schumann on the set during this time. This evidence was used to establish that Schumann had heard the melody and, consciously or unconsciously, copied the theme. It was at this point during the trial proceedings that Walter Schumann claimed that he received permission from Rózsa to use the motif. He argued that Rózsa gave him permission to use the motif which, with evidence, would be a strong defense against Rózsa’s claim. While the case was in session, the lawsuit and Schumann’s counter-suit received publicity from musicologists who pointed out that the four note theme can be found in several pieces throughout history.
Although Rózsa and Schumann’s lawyers argued for their clients on the basis of copyright law, this was not the only factor in the ongoing court case. By the time the lawsuit was filed in 1954, Schumann’s theme for Dragnet had already exploded as a household gimmick. Dragnet began airing television episodes in 1951, but two wildly popular versions of the show’s theme music were released in 1953. First, Ray Anthony’s jazz orchestra rendition debuted in June 1953. Stan Freberg’s parody single, “St. George and the Dragonet” (“Little Blue Riding Hood” was on the B-side) came out in October 1953. Both versions sold well and landed high on Billboard’s charts.
The four note motif became a widely popular theme by the mid-1950s—it was the score’s most memorable effect. People would have hummed the tune for comic effect in everyday life. In becoming an introductory device for one of the most popular television shows of the decade, the motif became distorted beyond Rózsa’s original thematic indication that the “killers” were present in the 1946 movie.
In 1953, after Anthony’s jazz rendition and “St. George and the Dragonet” were released, journalist Bob Thomas published an article on the craze revolving around the four note theme:
“The opening theme of ‘Dragnet,’ the cops-and-hoodlums TV show on NBC, has become the most famous four notes in America today. They have eclipsed “Dum da dum dum”— the start of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony that was the victory symbol in World War II.”
Bob Thomas, “Four Notes Blare for ‘Dragnet'”
Rózsa must have been aware of the other versions of the song, as the cease and desist letter sent by Abeles and Bernstein in November 1953 directly references “St. George and the Dragonet” and “Little Blue Riding Hood,” which were produced under Capitol Records, the same label as Dragnet. The popularity of the other versions of the song demonstrated both the success of the theme, and the possible monetary value of the work if it could be proved to be solely Rózsa’s composition.
In 1955, a settlement between the two publishers concluded the case by allowing both Rózsa and Schumann and their publishers to share the royalties for the four note theme “Main Title,” which was later titled “Danger Ahead.” The “Dragnet March,” which was everything other than the four note theme, remained the intellectual property of Walter Schumann. It took several years for the decision to be enforced, made evident on CDs published after 1955 that list either Walter Schumann or Miklós Rózsa as the composer— but not both.
Music copyright lawsuits tend to be intense legal battles between composers and artists. My copyright class, an elective for my Library and Information Science master’s degree, has taught me new ways to interpret copyright lawsuits. So, how does Rózsa’s case relate to modern musical copyright cases? Most recently, Katy Perry won an appeal against the Christian rapper Flame in a controversial lawsuit claiming Perry’s song “Dark Horse” infringed on an eight-note ostinato, a musical pattern repeated many times in succession, in Flame’s song “Joyful Noise.” Similar to Rózsa’s case, rapper Flame attempted to prove Perry had unconsciously copied the ostinato after having reasonable access to the song. However, by granting Perry’s appeal, the court “upended the long-standing copyright precedent regarding the extent to which access to a song can be used to prove infringement or plagiarism.” The cases of Miklós Rózsa and Walter Schumann and Katy Perry v. Flame are reflective of the constantly evolving nature of music and copyright law. Maybe in another 60 years, we will be comparing the groundbreaking case involving Katy Perry with a new and more influential musical controversy. Time will tell!
The Miklós Rózsa Papers (Miklós Rózsa Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries) are part of the Special Collections Research Center’s manuscript collections.
By Grace Wagner, Reading Room Access Services Supervisor
May marks the one-year anniversary of SCRC’s first blog post, which went live just over a year ago, on May 7, 2019. We’ve been posting weekly ever since! Take a look back at our first post below:
All month long, we’ve been celebrating National Photography Month through our blog post coverage of special collections and University Archives materials in our collections. To finish out the month, our Plastics and Historical Artifacts Curator, Courtney Asztalos, who regularly teaches with SCRC’s photography collections, provides a glimpse at SCRC’s transition to teaching digitally with these materials.
Teaching Remotely with Photograph Collections
By Courtney Asztalos, Plastics and Historical Artifacts Curator
Teaching with our photography collections across campus and regionally is part of the regular instruction provided by SCRC. As we transitioned to remote work in mid-March, teaching with our photography collections continued online.
During April, I was excited to join Art History Professor Margaret (Maggie) Innes’ class for a shared session on utilizing SCRC Online resources. I joined Anneka Herre’s Transmedia Studio class to share options for researching our digital collections as students were working with archival materials for an assignment.
Another exciting opportunity for teaching with photographic materials occurred when Light Work Lab invited Nicole Westerdahl, Reference and Access Services Librarian, and me to share SCRC digitalcollections and other online archives for photographers. Nicole and I put together a session that spanned how to use SCRC Online collections and our more extensive digital collections, the Plastics Collection, and the Marcel Breuer Digital Archive. We shared information about Fair Use and Creative Commons resources, as well as a variety of other institutions’ online archives and digital resources for artists to browse and explore.
For National Photography Month, I wanted to share a few digitized objects available for viewing digitally. This is just a small sample of items we regularly pull and display for our in-person photography sessions. Enjoy!
Speaking of daguerreotypes—see this engraving of Frederick Douglass made from one. Did you know Douglass was one of the most photographed Americans of his time? This engraving, made by engraver John Chester Buttre, is from the first edition of Douglass’s “Autographs for Freedom”. Read letters from Douglass in our Gerrit Smith Papers!
This Baby Brownie Kodak Camera was one of the first fully plastic cameras marketed by Kodak and designed by Walter Dorwin Teague. And, if, you’re interested in his work as an industrial designer, you’re in luck! SCRC has his papers!
View “Blind Woman” a photograph by Paul Strand straight from the printed page inside one of the most historically significant photographic publications of the 20th century, Alfred Stieglitz’s Camera Work, no. 49/50, July 1917.
April 29, 2020. The Syracuse University Archives is seeking to record and preserve the personal responses of Syracuse University students, faculty, and staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. Take a look at our website page on this project for more information.
May 6, 2020. SCRC graduate student Isabel McCullough was awarded the Kathy and Stanley Walters Student Scholarship Fund for her work at Bird Library in SCRC.
May 8, 2020. SCRC graduate student assistants Sheridan Bishoff, Natasha Bishop, and Elisabeth Genter presented at the 2020 Annual Art History Graduate Symposium. Julia Jessen, who conducted research with SCRC’s American Book Company Records for her paper, also presented.
May 11, 2020. SCRC Plastics and Historical Artifacts Curator Courtney Asztalos received honorable mention for the 46th Annual Light Work Grants in Photography.
May 18, 2020. An item in SCRC’s collection is mentioned in a blog post titled “The Cookbook not for Cooking,” published by Medium.
May 19, 2020. Authors Scott Pitoniak and Rick Burton present the story of “Forever Orange: The Story of Syracuse University,” in a virtual book talk. The publication is filled with photographs and research from SCRC’s University Archives collections.
The photograph featured in the header image of this post is from our Jackie Martin Papers (Jackie Martin Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries), part of the Special Collections Research Center’s manuscript collections.
In my work as a Reference Assistant at SCRC, I answer a lot of reference questions about University history. This was especially true last year as everyone was preparing for SU’s sesquicentennial this spring. One of my favorite projects from sesquicentennial preparations was researching the Inn Complete and the history of its current building on South Campus. Even though the Inn Complete has only been in this location since the 1990’s (it was originally located in the Sky Barn), the structure has had a storied life over the last 100 years.
The building was originally constructed as a barn on the University Farm, which was a 100 acre farm when Syracuse University acquired it in 1910.
It’s unclear if the Inn Complete barn was one of the structures from the original farm or was added around 1913 when Mrs. Russel Sage, the wife of an SU alumnus, donated funds to construct new barns on the University Farm. In either case, the building is one of the oldest on South Campus.
The farm remained fully operational in partnership with the College of Agriculture until the college closed in 1934. The farm continued to operate in a limited capacity until the influx of students after World War II necessitated that the land be used for additional student housing.
In 1947, the barn was renovated into a Ski Lodge which supported SU’s very own ski slopes, skating rink, and other outdoor winter activities on South Campus.
The renovations added picture windows and a stone porch, and they provided facilities for a snack bar, dormitory, first aid room, classroom, locker space, ski repair shop, waxing room, and offices. Skiing at SU can trace its origins back to the Outing Club, founded by College of Forestry professor Fay Welch in 1935. The club sponsored SU’s first ski team, and skiing was officially added as an intramural sport at SU for the 1937-1938 season. The following year, Welch helped to found the Ski School, which later was adopted as a part of the Department of Athletics in 1947, when skiing became an official sport at SU. Outside of competitive skiing, students were able to attend Ski School for credit, and the Ski Lodge and accompanying facilities were also open to students, faculty, staff, and their families for recreational use.
In addition to looking up the history of the Ski Lodge and skiing at SU, my research included finding historical photographs as well. Through that exploration I discovered some pretty spectacular photos of ski jumps and found out that, during a thaw, skiers use roller-skis to keep up their training.
But my favorite activity I researched was the Winter Carnival. What began as a half-day carnival in 1933 evolved into a full weekend of events, including skiing and skating competitions.
There were several other events for the less athletically inclined as well. Over the years, a snow sculpture competition became one of the main attractions for the carnival as groups of students teamed together to craft colorful sculptures that, in some cases, occupied the entirety of their front lawns. As much as SU students can grow tired of the snow, it was great to see that there were traditions that embraced the joys of winter as well.
In a similar spirit of whimsy, the carnival included an informal dance called the Stockingfoot. According to tradition, students attended this dance without shoes and, in later years, sporting their very own handmade stockings. There even was a competition for best socks. Supposedly, this all began in 1936 when the carnival organizers had difficulty finding a venue. The only space available had just had the floors replaced, and so the manager allowed the dance to be held there under the condition that students not damage the floors. The organizers saw this as no problem and promised that the students would even remove their shoes. And so, a tradition was born. Not long after, in 1942, the Sno Ball, a formal dance which included the crowning of the Snow Queen, was added to the final evening of Winter Carnival events.
The Winter Carnival was a major event at SU until it hit a lull in the 1960’s. Not long after that, South Campus was redesigned to create more student housing, including the Skytop Apartments.
The Ski Lodge was left presumably unused, or possibly used for storage, until it was renovated again and the Inn Complete took over the space in January 1994. As the Inn Complete, the barn today is a pub and event space for graduate students, faculty, and staff.
I’ve spent a lot of time with the SU Photograph Collection through my reference work over the last couple of years, and during that time it’s become one of my favorite collections at the SCRC. There is always something to be said for putting a picture to words and using photographs to supplement text-based research. This project was no exception. Not only did I get to see the University Farm and the Ski Lodge in their full glory, but there are also the smaller details that add richness to the history — the styles of clothes, hair, and shoes, the changing landscape of SU’s campus, and even the quality of the photographs themselves. Then there are the photographs that convey details, such as the roller-skis, that often don’t make it into the written record through event programs or press clippings. Seeing people in action brought the narrative to life, and a research project that was ostensibly about a building became a project about the history of the SU community.
The Syracuse University Photograph Collection (Syracuse University Photograph Collection, University Archives, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries) is part of our University Archives collections.
May is National Photography Month. Over the course of this month, we will be highlighting special collections and University Archives materials that specifically relate to the history of photography. This week, we highlight a research post from one of our graduate student workers.
By Aisha Pierre, Reference Assistant
As a museum studies grad student, I have partaken in several fantastic opportunities to attend networking workshops and conferences, meeting incredible professionals in the field. The more networking opportunities I experience, the more I realize the importance of business cards, and how a simple design can help make an impression. This semester, I am taking “Material Identification” (MUS 500), and our first lecture centered on photography processes. For another one of our lectures, we learned about cartes de visite (cards of visit), which were patented by French photographer Andre Adolphe Eugene Disderi in 1854. Imagine during one of these networking events if I handed a potential employer a small 2 ½ by 4 inch card with a photograph of myself dressed in my Sunday best, staring straight ahead, with no emotion on my face. There is no doubt about it, that would make a lasting impression.
Initially, only those who could afford the cost of photographs were having their pictures taken in photography studios. As photographs become more easily accessible, more photographers took advantage of their audiences’ interest in the new medium and created and marketed an affordable souvenir. At SCRC, we have a Cartes de visite Collection that consists of one small rectangular box with a total of 322 images. The photographs are grouped together into protective sleeves that are ordered alphabetically by the photographer and geographic location. Because of their size, many cartes de visite were stored into albums, and depending on who the subject of the image was, the card could be traded and added to different collections.
To create the cartes de visite, a collodion wet-plate process is used, and printed on albumen paper. First, paper is washed with sodium chloride and fermented egg whites that are mixed with acetic acid. Once the paper has dried, it is dipped into silver nitrate and water, which makes the surface sensitive to UV light. Once dry, the paper is placed into a frame under a negative and exposed to UV light. To secure the image to the paper, it is washed with water to remove any lasting salts. The photos are then secured to thick card stock with contact information for the photographer on the back.
During the 1880s, cartes de visite were superseded by cabinet cards. These were typically 4 inches by 6 inches and received their name because they were the perfect size to fit into a cabinet. With cabinet cards, people were able to collect photographs of noteworthy people, including actors, writers, and politicians and display them publicly in their homes. Although cabinet cards and cartes de visite were popular at different times, their function and subject matter did not largely differ from one another. In the Cartes de visite Collection, there are several photographs of indigenous people and travel photographs from Singapore, Egypt, and China. European and American photographers made these images readily available, as their clients were becoming interested in the appearances of different cultures. In her book titled, Vision, Race, and Modernity: A Visual Economy of the Andean Image World, author Deborah Poole discusses how the relationship between the subject and the photographer of these photos at times were strained, and this uneven power dynamic often meant that the stories behind the images could be manipulated by the photographer.
The issue of stories being modified among cartes de visites continues with the Ronald G. Becker Collection of Charles Eisenmann Photographs. The SCRC collection consists of over one-thousand cartes de visite portraits of circus performers (there are also cabinet cards in this collection), including those from the P.T. Barnum and Bailey Circus. Charles Eisenmann emigrated from Germany in 1870 and owned a photography shop in the Bowery area of New York City. It was in New York that he discovered his interest in circus performer photography. Eisenmann opened his shop to the performers to help promote their acts in the shows.
During the Victorian Era, these performers were popular subjects because people were fascinated with admiring – more like gawking – at the physical abnormalities of the circus entertainers. Each performer had an elaborate backstory arranged by their employer that was used to spark excitement in the audience. For example, the famous Jojo the Dog Faced Boy’s circus backstory recounted how he was allegedly discovered in Russia living in a cave before being civilized by Barnum. Jojo’s real name was Fedor Adrianovich Jeftichew and he had hypertrichosis, which causes an excessive amount of hair to grow all over the body. Although the Becker collection has many photographs of performers with real birth defects, like Fedor, many of the images were staged by Eisenmann to depict abnormalities that were not genuine. Some images depict people with three or four legs, which Eisenmann would have staged using props in his photography shop. Eisenmann’s carefully composed photographs of Jojo and other performers brought audiences to the circus and helped people like P.T. Barnum make a fortune.
It has been fascinating to look through the various historic photographs within these collections and see how visiting cards quickly took on the form of souvenir and trading cards in a short period of time. Viewing the cartes de visite and cabinet cards, I have also been able to witness how subjects of photography changed due to the interests of the public and how photographers helped shape how individuals were presented to the public through their own lens. During this time of social distancing and shut downs as a result of COVID-19, I highly encourage visitors to view the entire Ronald G. Becker Collection of Charles Eisenmann Photographs on SCRC Online.
By Grace Wagner, Reading Room Access Services Supervisor
Today marks six weeks since SCRC and SU Libraries moved to online operations. April, however, has been the first full month that staff members have worked remotely, and it certainly changes the way our department typically functions.
Updates on past and upcoming public events and news of newly processed collections have lessened significantly this month, as opportunities to meet publicly and work directly with special collections materials onsite have been unavailable. We are figuring out what special collections looks like in the immediate future one step and one day at a time, but that doesn’t mean we’re not still working to make our collections available and accessible for current and future use.
Classes taught with special collections items continue as we hurtle towards the end of the spring semester, our processing department has been hard at work providing metadata for online collections, and our public services team continues to answer reference questions to the best of our limited abilities. Starting this month, we will be sharing some of these staff member experiences (and home office set-ups!) while we work remotely. Please enjoy our April wrap up!
Looking Back at April Events
Thursday, April 23, 2020: SCRC Chief Curator Colleen Theisen participated in a Folger Shakespeare Library virtual event in honor of William Shakespeare birth/death day for the “In the Collection: Staxpeditions” session, exploring digital library collections in a panel discussion. You can watch the full recorded session here.
Newly Processed Collections
Special Collections.George Family Photograph Collection: A collection of candid family photographs, most from the Georges, reflecting African-American life in the mid-twentieth century.
SCRC Works from Home
By Jim Meade, Audio Preservation Engineer
In audio preservation engineering, I’ve completed post-production on 30 hours of analog tape transfers over a glitchy VPN, (which library IT worked tirelessly to help solve, thanks guys!). Unfortunately, the speed of my domestic IP connection does not help.
I miss our excellent preservation studio at
Belfer. Trying to monitor audio over barking dogs and traffic certainly
emphasizes the upside of the Belfer studio as a work environment.
I have also completed editing and metadata gathering for all student transfers on our Latin American 45 project, which is now up-to-date.
Producing materials for online class presentation was something I did not expect to be so time-consuming, so I learned a lot in that process. Presenting to classes online is frustrating for me personally, because I like to work with physical media samples for discussion, things I can point to and hand around to students, as well as playing legacy formats live in the room as a listening experience. There are definitely professional development opportunities for me in learning how to do this more efficiently.
Catching up on lots of writing, especially in my
role on the SULA executive board.
I’m also looking forward to getting involved in
upcoming projects with the Head of the Digital Library Program, Deirdre Joyce
and Digital Projects Coordinator Mike Dermody.
The photograph featured in the header image of this post is from ourGrace Hartigan Papers (Grace Hartigan Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries), part of the Special Collections Research Center’s manuscript collections.
We’ve recently added another digital exhibition to our list: A Legacy of Leadership: The Chancellors and Presidents of Syracuse University. An on-site version of this exhibition has been on display on the first floor of Bird Library since September 2019. As the curator of this exhibition, I’m very pleased we can now offer visitors the opportunity to view it online while current circumstances with the COVID-19 health emergency are keeping us all away from campus for the time being. Below are a few highlights and personal favorites from the exhibition.
Although Syracuse University marks 24 March 1870 as its official founding date, our first chancellor wasn’t inaugurated until 13 February 1873. Unlike many of his successors, Alexander Winchell was not a member of the clergy of the Methodist Church – the religious denomination that founded Syracuse University. During his tenure, Winchell oversaw the establishment of the College of Medicine and the College of Fine Arts, as well as the completion of the Hall of Languages – the first university building on “The Hill.”
I’m proud to work at a university that has been co-educational since its founding and that has championed the contributions of women students and faculty from such an early date. That’s one of the reasons why this excerpt from Chancellor Charles Sims’ 1884 annual report to the Board of Trustees is one of my favorite items in this exhibition. Not only were women like Sarah Loguen breaking barriers at SU in the 19th century, the University recognized the importance of their accomplishments in contributing to a more robust education for all students. “[T]hose dangers which many suppose to attend the system…are imaginary, not real,” Chancellor Sims stated in his address. “[C]o-education…does in fact secure the best education in refining and elevating, and secures the best preparation for practical life.”
The University underwent one of its first periods of rapid growth and expansion under Chancellor James Roscoe Day, including an increase in enrollment from roughly 800 to over 6,000 students. With the establishment of 13 new programs and schools, Syracuse University was well and truly on the map as an institution with an international reputation. In 1909, SU even drew the attention of the Japanese Commission who toured campus accompanied by Chancellor Day and the University’s deans. One interesting piece of information I found while researching this visit was that several of SU’s Japanese students were recruited to serve as interpreters. Our University has a long history of welcoming students from all over the world, and it was a pleasure to see several of our early international students acknowledged as key participants in this piece of university history.
Although John E. Corbally Jr’s tenure as Chancellor and President was among the shortest in SU’s history, it was arguably one of the most fraught. Both the 1970 Student Strike and the Syracuse 8 football boycott occurred during the time Corbally was in office. The University faced the same questions and conflicts confronting American society and higher education during the period of civil rights and anti-Vietnam War activity of the late 1960s into the 1970s. Despite the turbulence of the times, Corbally appears to have been generally remembered for having managed this volatile period on campus well. Though there was much speculation about the reason for his departure in March 1971, Corbally stated he simply couldn’t pass up the opportunity to become president of the University of Illinois and that he left SU with no animosity.
As the archivist for the Pan Am Flight 103/Lockerbie Air Disaster Archives, I spend a great deal of time researching and teaching about the ways in which Chancellor Melvin Eggers and his administration responded to the loss of 35 Syracuse study abroad students as a result of that 1988 terrorist bombing. One of the personal benefits of curating this exhibition was having the opportunity to learn more about Eggers’ career at SU prior to the tragedy, which occurred relatively close to the end of his tenure. All told, Eggers spent over 40 years in service to SU. Among his many contributions during that time, we also have Chancellor Eggers to thank for the Carrier Dome and Schine Student Center – two areas on campus where so many student memories are made.
You can learn more about these items, as well as the other administrations not highlighted in this blog post, by visiting the Legacy of Leadership digital exhibition online. We hope this digital trip through part of Syracuse University’s history can provide an interesting and informative distraction from current events.