June and July in the Special Collections Research Center change pace as many of our staff travel for professional development opportunities. SCRC staff have recently represented Syracuse University at the Association for Recorded Sound Conference, the American Library Association’s Rare Books and Manuscripts Section conference, and The Society of American Archivists conference.
Nicole Westerdahl, Reference and Access Services Librarian, recently completed her year as New York Archives Conference (NYAC) Co-Chair/Local Arrangements Chair for the 2019 conference. The conference was held at St. John Fisher College in Rochester, NY from June 5th-7th and celebrated NYAC’s 50th year. Join us in thanking Nicole for her year of hard work contributing to the profession.
News and Mentions:
July 2019 The team in the Belfer Audio Lab digitized a new selection of moon/lunar related tracks that you can hear in this month’s Sound Beat podcast episodes.
The Sesquicentennial Exhibit, “150 Years of Tradition at Syracuse University,” will have its debut at a reception on September 5, 2019.
By Courtney Asztalos, Plastics and Historical Artifacts Curator
During the academic year of 2018-2019, Jacob Riddle, a faculty member of Transmedia and the School of Art, and I partnered with his Digital Fabrication and Transmedia courses. The goal was for students to create 3D prints and VR sculptures utilizing SCRC’s Plastics Artifacts Collection. We accomplished this by creating a temporary lab space in Special Collections for the students to practice photogrammetry. Photogrammetry is a method of 3D scanning used by artists and cultural heritage institutions for documenting artifacts. Students used this process to create 3D models of objects from the Plastics Artifacts Collection. These models became starting points for the creation of virtual reality (VR) sculptures and 3D prints. The students’ sculptural and artistic renderings are akin to methods of collage art and remixing.
The goal of this assignment was not to reproduce the artifacts into a virtual or physical existence but to reimagine and create new works of art. By partnering with Jacob and his classes, it was the first time that Special Collections and these departments worked together with artifacts and 3D scanning as both inspiration and material. One of the benefits of hosting Jacob’s classes in both fall 2018 and spring 2019 was the ability to review lessons learned in the Fall and immediately implement changes during the Spring.
During both semesters, Jacob brought his classes (ARI 300/500 & 600 Digital Sculpture, TRM 351 Advanced Transmedia Studio) to SCRC for a one-hour instruction session introducing students to SCRC, archival research, and the Plastics Artifacts Collection. Students engaged with a wide range of historical artifacts, documents, photographs, and books.
During the fall, students worked in groups, and 3D scanned together. Jacob and I pre-selected a limited group of artifacts for the students to photograph. We selected artifacts that represented a wide range of plastics material culture. Artifacts were chosen for how they would scan properly and alternatively for how they could pose a challenge due to reflectivity and transparency. Jacob wanted students to explore the limitations of photogrammetry through this active learning.
During the spring semester, Jacob and I switched things up. Students came in again for a one hour historical plastics session. During this session, students learned about the different facets of the SCRC process and registered as researchers. After this session, they had two weeks to select one plastics artifact each. Once artifacts were chosen, students came back to SCRC to 3D scan their objects individually. During this scanning session, they also consulted with me for an individualized introduction to researching their object with SCRC materials and SUL resources. Our decision to have students choose their own artifacts proved to be a fruitful choice. Through choosing artifacts, students were engaging with inquiry-based learning while strengthening their research skills with primary source materials. We were excited by this improvement during the spring semester as it inspired significant insights and innovations in form and concept. An outstanding example of this success is evident in the work of Darcie Brown.
Darcie Brown, a Master of Fine Arts graduate student, was inspired to work with a celluloid, blow-molded swan ornament (artifact accession number 2011.072) manufactured in the early twentieth century by the Viscoloid Company, which was later acquired by the Du Pont Company in 1925. Her research in SCRC’s Reading Room with manuscript materials brought to light the disparity of plastics chemicals manufacturing companies’ outwardly expressed concerns for the environment versus their toxic manufacturing processes that polluted the environment. Brown demonstrated this disparity by altering the appearance of the traditional celluloid swan ornament into a 3D-printed mutated version of it. Of her work, Brown writes: “If DuPont and other companies continue to carelessly dispose of hazardous waste, this strange swan that looks like it lives on an alien planet could become a reality.”
Jacob and I presented the final results of our first-semester collaboration at a public program and exhibition in SUL’s Peter Graham Scholarly Commons called “Virtual Plastic.” During our presentation, audience participants were able to view the sculptures by wearing Oculus headsets. A variety of 3D printed student work was on exhibition as well. When the academic year was over, it was exciting to reflect on our unusual partnership and how the Plastics Artifacts Collection transformed SCRC’s classroom into a space for creativity and active learning with Special Collections materials.
The Plastics Artifacts Collection is part of SCRC’s special collection materials (Plastics Artifacts Collection, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries).
What is the value of a new acquisition? Curators must consider how new items fit into already existing collections and why a new piece is relevant and worthwhile to add. SCRC’s recent acquisition of a portfolio of Jantzen Swimwear advertising photographs from the 1930s and 1940s features 111 silver gelatin prints of swimwear from this era, bringing value to our collections in relation to plastics, fashion, advertising and photography materials. Three staff members discuss the value of this acquisition below.
Fashion and Plastics
Courtney Asztalos, Plastics and Historical Artifacts Curator
This acquisition of the Jantzen Swimwear advertising portfolio illustrates the relationship between American fashion, the textiles industry, and the rise of the plastics industry during the 1930s and 1940s.
The photographs in the Jantzen portfolio are evidence of artificial and synthetic fibers’ role in transforming American swimwear. One rubber yarn present in these swimsuits and of particular historical importance is Lastex. This “miracle fiber” was patented in 1931 by Percy Adamson, of the Adamson Brothers Company. The Adamson Company quickly became a subsidiary of the US Rubber Company (a company under the ownership of the Du Pont family starting in 1927), and Lastex entered the market for distribution in 1931. Lastex earned the title of the “depression solvent” because of its ability to hold shape and its reputation for durability through the laundry process. Lauded in its time as one of the most inventive achievements in the manufacturing of textiles—Lastex was latex in thread form. Latex was created by manufacturing a rubber tree’s milk and then extruding the result into a round thread form. This new thread was then tightly enclosed with wound layers of yarn such as cotton, wool, acetate, silk or rayon.
Americans were skeptical of artificial fibers in the earlier part of the twentieth century because of their unpredictability, particularly through processes of washing and ironing. Through the process of cleaning these garments, such as early rayon, consumers found clothing would stretch out and become gummy and unwearable. However, with innovations in textile manufacturing and the practice of combining various types of new fibers to achieve more durable fabrics, American trust shifted.
By 1932, Jantzen was one of the most recognized trademarks in the world due to their advertising strategies and the popularity of the Diving Girl logo. Jantzen’s utilization of Lastrex helped them to further develop their brand as “smart swimming apparel.” As the 1930s advanced, Lastrex allowed Jantzen to create new bathing suits that differed from the previous woolen suits known for soaking up water and drooping. The ways human bodies were on display in public swimming spaces drastically began to change—shapes now could be smoothed, structured, or suppressed in an infinite number of ways.
The Jantzen Swimwear portfolio brings value to SCRC’s collections for what it tells us about twentieth-century fashion, through the lenses of Hollywood fashion, advertising, and popular culture. During the 1930s, Jantzen’s innovative approach to fabrics and textiles, coupled with a persuasive and pervasive advertising department, led the brand to dominate the burgeoning swimsuit industry. Jantzen’s advertising emphasized the essential nature of swimming as a leisure activity, no longer available only to wealthy resort-goers, but a democratic, all-American pursuit.
Jantzen struck a balance between glamour and accessibility in its advertising. This essential balance is evident in the photographs in Jantzen’s advertising portfolio. In addition to traditional posed studio shots, models for the Jantzen line lounged near pools, frolicked in the water, and smiled on boardwalks. They accessorized with espadrilles and cover-ups and stood next to wicker furniture, highlighting the expanded role that swimming was assuming in American life through a range of products. Looking at the Jantzen portfolio of photos, the stylish swimwear and photography set-ups mimic standard glamour shots and fashion styles popular in Hollywood during this time.
The stylish advertisements presented the idea to Americans that they could be as glamorous as Hollywood stars in their Jantzen swimwear. And, in fact, Jantzen’s relationship with Hollywood extended beyond the design of their advertising photographs. The company frequently enlisted up-and-coming stars to model for the Jantzen brand, beginning with actress Loretta Young, who was awarded the title of “Miss Jantzen” in 1931, and continuing throughout the 1930s and 1940s with other stars, including Esther Williams, Marilyn Monroe, and James Garner. The styles of the company’s swimwear naturally echoed styles worn by stars on screen as well. For example, a glamorous hooded beach coat (pictured below) bears a noticeable resemblance to Lana Turner’s iconic white beachcoat and bathing suit in 1946’s The Postman Always Rings Twice.
Cover-ups like this beach coat helped make the company’s otherwise cheeky bathing suit designs respectable. The practice of putting a wholesome cover-up over a scandalous suit applied to both male and female bathers at this time. Several pictures in the advertising portfolio feature male swimmers dressed in what appears to be a men’s one-piece bathing suit. In fact, a zipper separates the upper and lower halves of the swimsuit, making the adjustable swimsuit versatile for the wearer, as many public beaches at this time required men to cover their chests.
Teaching and Research
Colleen Theisen, Chief Curator of Exhibitions, Programs, and Education
When considering whether to acquire an item being offered as a donation or being sold from a bookseller, a primary concern for a curator is how the item will be used by researchers and in particular how interesting it will be for teaching here at Syracuse University.
The Jantzen Swimwear advertising portfolio has crossover interest for many departments on campus and so it is a good fit for using in our classroom with a wide variety of materials. Classes studying the history of advertising have an example of one company’s internal documentation of their marketing images, and they can take a look how the shots are staged, or investigate the larger social construction of race, class, and gender through marketing at the time. Classes interested in photography have 111 example of silver gelatin prints and can study the physical prints themselves, or photography in the context of marketing in the 1930’s. The glamorous Hollywood style images are so visually compelling that they can be paired with any mix of materials for a introductory class demonstrating the wide variety of material available for historic research in a special collections. Beyond their contextual and historic information, the binder is sturdy and the photographs are in clear sleeves which means the pages can be turned by students in classes without having to pull out white gloves to handle the photographs, which means it is easy to use and can physically withstand classroom use.
The Jantzen Swimwear Photographs are part of SCRC’s special collection materials (Jantzen Swimwear Photographs, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries).
Special thanks to the team at Between the Covers for their research while listing and selling this item without which our team could not have started to dream up uses for it.
Craig, Hazel Thompson, 1904-, and Ola Day Rush. Clothes With Character. Boston: Little, Brown and company, 1941.
Lenček, L., & Bosker, G. (1989). Making waves: Swimsuits and the undressing of America. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.
Richmond, Clifford A. The History And Romance of Elastic Webbing. [Easthampton, Mass.: Printed at the Easthampton news company, 1946.
Ward, Susan. “Swimwear.” Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion, edited by Valerie Steele, vol. 3, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2005, pp. 250-255. Gale Virtual Reference Library.
Wallance, Don. Shaping America’s Products. New York: Reinhold, 1956.
I am an Art History graduate student at Syracuse University, so it is always an exhilarating experience to stumble upon a work of art while working in the Special Collections Research Center at Syracuse University Libraries. SCRC holds a diverse group of rare books, including a 1789 edition of William Blake’s Songs of Innocence. Blake (1757-1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. In 1794, Blake expanded Songs of Innocence into its final version Songs of Innocence and Experience (1794). Together, they show the two contrary states of the human soul.
The pages of our volume were removed from their binding and matted for preservation. My introduction to Blake’s Songs of Innocence came when I was asked to number the matted plates. The pages of Songs of Innocence contain a collection of poems and works of art copied from copperplate engravings and then hand-painted. I saw great care placed into each etching when I was observing the book. While prints are considered a means of duplication, every color wash by Blake gives a different life to his artwork. Some editions explore various ranges of light and shade, expanding beyond expectations of local color.
Largely dismissed in Blake’s lifetime, his work is now considered an important example in the history of English poetry. The popularity of Blake’s writing today has led to easy access of his poems in print and online. However, it is not always easy to see a full range of watercolor washes and prints integrated with his poetry. SU’s Songs of Innocence contains unique relief etched impressions with color choices unlike other editions created during the late eighteenth century. Today, there is even an online William Blake Archive that allows you to compare the different artistic decisions. For example, the Blake Archive contains a copy of the 1789 Songs of Innocence that is currently held at the Yale Center for British Art.
When comparing Yale’s to our version from the same publication year, there are striking differences in how Blake colored each individual copy. Our edition contains darker lines from the original print while Yale’s has golden undertones. Several of our prints also depict a vivacious wash of a red to blue as seen in the lower half of “The Ecchoing Green.” That poem in Yale’s copy does not contain this coverage or vibrancy of color on the lower half of this poem.
Similarly, there is a variation in the overall tone of the poem“Infant Joy.” SU’s copy of the poem places a blooming flower against a soft blue. The background leads the observer to place the plant in an environment, against the blue sky. Yale’s copy of “Infant Joy” instead contains a flattening range of colors through the sparse application of blue and green. This minimal use of tone alters the audiences’ perception of space. The use of color in Yale’s “Infant Joy” therefore becomes less of a whimsical birth and more ambiguous in its surroundings.
Blake’s skill as a craftsman and printmaker is evident in his integration of text and image in Songs of Innocence. Poetry creates its own visual language just as pictures do. Poetic words form a world in your mind, and Blake provides a form to that world by interweaving the words prominently among the color and forms of his poems. As seen in “Infant Joy,” the poem is placed amidst the fluid growing form as the first letter softly touches the curving neck of the blossoming plant. The leaves bend to complement the space the plant holds, creating an integrated composition. There are examples of poems that have more separation between word and image. Even in these separated images, such as “Spring” and “The Little Boy Lost” (see below), Blake fluidly activates the space of words with intricate details of wispy trees and dancing vines. Reading Blake’s poetry in mass production, only existing as words, loses some of the complexity of his original integrated compositions.
It was a pleasure to have the opportunity to work with this rare work of art. If you are interested in viewing this work, visit the Reading Room at Syracuse University’s Special Collections Research Center.
William Blake’s 1789 edition of Songs of Innocence referenced in this post is part of our rare books collection (Rare books, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries).
1. Can you tell us a bit about yourself and your new role in the Special Collections Research Center?
I am from Cleveland, Ohio, home of Lake Erie and part of the “North Coast” of America. I am a hopeful Cleveland sports fan with a great appreciation for an underdog story.
As the Director of the Special Collections Research Center, I see myself as a leader, coach, and advocate for our amazing staff and our spectacular collections. It is my responsibility to share the importance of our work as a research library and preserver of cultural heritage materials with not only the SU community, but with Central New York, the state of New York, and the World. It is my goal that we continue to build phenomenal collections, including the stories of marginalized communities to create a more accurate picture of history, while connecting with a variety of audiences to work with these collections.
2. What has been most exciting about living in Central New York?
Wegmans! I am kidding. It is great to be back in the Finger Lakes Region for its beauty, rich history, and diversity. I began my special collections and archives career at Cornell University and was taken by Central New York’s centrality to many social movements, including abolitionism and women’s suffrage. I look forward to exploring social movements and the communities and people, who dedicated their time to them, as well as the impact of ordinary and extraordinary people on the development of the region. I look forward to the living and the work ahead.
3. What do you like to do in your spare time?
No one would be surprised to know that I like reading, especially memoirs and biographies. I find people’s lived experiences, decision-making processes, and leaps of faith fascinating. I also like watching movies of all kinds, but have a soft spot for documentaries and action films with women leads. Reality television is my guilty pleasure. I know, I know. And I could spend hours looking at non-competitive food shows. Watching the creative process and care put into making meals is so satisfying, and I love to eat! I enjoy learning about African American history, art, and culture and find drawing and crafting to be relaxing.
4. Why Special Collections? What drew you to the field?
Special Collections and archives is my second career. After earning my MA in English from Iowa State University, I taught English for seven years at a community college in Illinois. While there, I learned a lot about teaching and mentoring students and gained a great appreciation of the mission of community colleges. However, I thought I might die if I had to continue teaching a 5 minimum course load per semester. I went to a career counselor and librarianship surfaced as a career path. I shouldn’t have been surprised since I always visited with the librarians at my community college. I started requesting and conducting informational interviews with all types of librarians (law, reference, etc.) to find out what a typical day was like, what they enjoyed most about their career, and what was most challenging about being a librarian. One day, I was reading the career stacks and came across a book entitled, Alternative Careers for Librarians. In that book, I read the profile of the Simmons College Archivist, and it was then that I knew I wanted to become an archivist. For those less familiar with the term, an archivist is someone who preserves, provides access to, and promotes records of enduring value. In short, you can call us historical records warriors or guardians of cultural heritage. I contacted the Simmons College Archivist and conducted an informational interview with her. The interview confirmed my decision to pursue archives and records management as a career. I took a leave of absence from my job, pursued a Masters in Library and Information Science with a concentration in Archives and Records Management at the University of Pittsburgh, and the rest is history. The Simmons College Archivist who accepted my informational interview request is currently the University Archivist at Harvard University.
5. What collection from SCRC do you think more people need to know about?
If I had to select one collection area that I would like people to know more about it would be our 19th and 20th-century social reform collections. These collections cover abolitionism, women’s rights and suffrage, prison reform, civil rights, Native American rights, and more. In these collections, one can see the roots of current day movements like women’s reproductive rights, prison abolition, the fight against mass incarceration, environmental justice, and civil and human rights. The activists, methods, relationships, fractures, and achievements evidence a lineage that we can learn, grow, and improve from even today.